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Rye

General information and profile: Rye or Secale cereale describes a type of cereal belonging to the sweet grasses that thrives in the temperate zones and is considered one of the most important staple foods besides wheat. The one-year-old plant reaches heights of growth of up to two meters and forms long roots and four-edged, between five and twenty centimeters long and stared ears.
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11.4: Early Induced Innate Immunity - Biology

Early induced innate immunity begins 4 - 96 hours after exposure to an infectious agent and involves the recruitment of defense cells as a result of pathogen-associated molecular patterns or PAMPs binding to pattern-recognition receptors or PRRs. These recruited defense cells include phagocytic cells (leukocytes such as neutrophils, eosinophils, and monocytes; tissue phagocytic cells in the tissue such as macrophages), cells that release inflammatory mediators (e.
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14.6: Glossary- The Reproductive System - Biology

Glossaryalveoli (of the breast) milk-secreting cells in the mammary glandampulla (of the uterine tube) middle portion of the uterine tube in which fertilization often occursantrum fluid-filled chamber that characterizes a mature tertiary (antral) follicleareola highly pigmented, circular area surrounding the raised nipple and containing areolar glands that secrete fluid important for lubrication during sucklingBartholin’s glands (also, greater vestibular glands) glands that produce a thick mucus that maintains moisture in the vulva area; also referred to as the greater vestibular glandsblood–testis barrier tight junctions between Sertoli cells that prevent bloodborne pathogens from gaining access to later stages of spermatogenesis and prevent the potential for an autoimmune reaction to haploid spermbody of uterus middle section of the uterusbroad ligament wide ligament that supports the uterus by attaching laterally to both sides of the uterus and pelvic wallbulbourethral glands (also, Cowper’s glands) glands that secrete a lubricating mucus that cleans and lubricates the urethra prior to and during ejaculationcervix elongate inferior end of the uterus where it connects to the vaginaclitoris (also, glans clitoris) nerve-rich area of the vulva that contributes to sexual sensation during intercoursecorpus albicans nonfunctional structure remaining in the ovarian stroma following structural and functional regression of the corpus luteumcorpus cavernosum either of two columns of erectile tissue in the penis that fill with blood during an erectioncorpus luteum transformed follicle after ovulation that secretes progesteronecorpus spongiosum (plural = corpora cavernosa) column of erectile tissue in the penis that fills with blood during an erection and surrounds the penile urethra on the ventral portion of the penisductus deferens (also, vas deferens) duct that transports sperm from the epididymis through the spermatic cord and into the ejaculatory duct; also referred as the vas deferensejaculatory duct duct that connects the ampulla of the ductus deferens with the duct of the seminal vesicle at the prostatic urethraendometrium inner lining of the uterus, part of which builds up during the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle and then sheds with mensesepididymis (plural = epididymides) coiled tubular structure in which sperm start to mature and are stored until ejaculationfimbriae fingerlike projections on the distal uterine tubesfollicle ovarian structure of one oocyte and surrounding granulosa (and later theca) cellsfolliculogenesis development of ovarian follicles from primordial to tertiary under the stimulation of gonadotropinsfundus (of the uterus) domed portion of the uterus that is superior to the uterine tubesgamete haploid reproductive cell that contributes genetic material to form an offspringglans penis bulbous end of the penis that contains a large number of nerve endingsgonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) hormone released by the hypothalamus that regulates the production of follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone from the pituitary glandgonads reproductive organs (testes in men and ovaries in women) that produce gametes and reproductive hormonesgranulosa cells supportive cells in the ovarian follicle that produce estrogenhymen membrane that covers part of the opening of the vaginainfundibulum (of the uterine tube) wide, distal portion of the uterine tube terminating in fimbriaeinguinal canal opening in abdominal wall that connects the testes to the abdominal cavityisthmus narrow, medial portion of the uterine tube that joins the uteruslabia majora hair-covered folds of skin located behind the mons pubislabia minora thin, pigmented, hairless flaps of skin located medial and deep to the labia majoralactiferous ducts ducts that connect the mammary glands to the nipple and allow for the transport of milklactiferous sinus area of milk collection between alveoli and lactiferous ductLeydig cells cells between the seminiferous tubules of the testes that produce testosterone; a type of interstitial cellmammary glands glands inside the breast that secrete milkmenarche first menstruation in a pubertal femalemenses shedding of the inner portion of the endometrium out though the vagina; also referred to as menstruationmenses phase phase of the menstrual cycle in which the endometrial lining is shedmenstrual cycle approximately 28-day cycle of changes in the uterus consisting of a menses phase, a proliferative phase, and a secretory phasemons pubis mound of fatty tissue located at the front of the vulvaMüllerian duct duct system present in the embryo that will eventually form the internal female reproductive structuresmyometrium smooth muscle layer of uterus that allows for uterine contractions during labor and expulsion of menstrual bloodoocyte cell that results from the division of the oogonium and undergoes meiosis I at the LH surge and meiosis II at fertilization to become a haploid ovumoogenesis process by which oogonia divide by mitosis to primary oocytes, which undergo meiosis to produce the secondary oocyte and, upon fertilization, the ovumoogonia ovarian stem cells that undergo mitosis during female fetal development to form primary oocytesovarian cycle approximately 28-day cycle of changes in the ovary consisting of a follicular phase and a luteal phaseovaries female gonads that produce oocytes and sex steroid hormones (notably estrogen and progesterone)ovulation release of a secondary oocyte and associated granulosa cells from an ovaryovum haploid female gamete resulting from completion of meiosis II at fertilizationpenis male organ of copulationperimetrium outer epithelial layer of uterine wallpolar body smaller cell produced during the process of meiosis in oogenesisprepuce (also, foreskin) flap of skin that forms a collar around, and thus protects and lubricates, the glans penis; also referred as the foreskinprimary follicles ovarian follicles with a primary oocyte and one layer of cuboidal granulosa cellsprimordial follicles least developed ovarian follicles that consist of a single oocyte and a single layer of flat (squamous) granulosa cellsproliferative phase phase of the menstrual cycle in which the endometrium proliferatesprostate gland doughnut-shaped gland at the base of the bladder surrounding the urethra and contributing fluid to semen during ejaculationpuberty life stage during which a male or female adolescent becomes anatomically and physiologically capable of reproductionrugae (of the vagina) folds of skin in the vagina that allow it to stretch during intercourse and childbirthscrotum external pouch of skin and muscle that houses the testessecondary follicles ovarian follicles with a primary oocyte and multiple layers of granulosa cellssecondary sex characteristics physical characteristics that are influenced by sex steroid hormones and have supporting roles in reproductive functionsecretory phase phase of the menstrual cycle in which the endometrium secretes a nutrient-rich fluid in preparation for implantation of an embryosemen ejaculatory fluid composed of sperm and secretions from the seminal vesicles, prostate, and bulbourethral glandsseminal vesicle gland that produces seminal fluid, which contributes to semenseminiferous tubules tube structures within the testes where spermatogenesis occursSertoli cells cells that support germ cells through the process of spermatogenesis; a type of sustentacular cellsperm (also, spermatozoon) male gametespermatic cord bundle of nerves and blood vessels that supplies the testes; contains ductus deferensspermatid immature sperm cells produced by meiosis II of secondary spermatocytesspermatocyte cell that results from the division of spermatogonium and undergoes meiosis I and meiosis II to form spermatidsspermatogenesis formation of new sperm, occurs in the seminiferous tubules of the testesspermatogonia (singular = spermatogonium) diploid precursor cells that become spermspermiogenesis transformation of spermatids to spermatozoa during spermatogenesissuspensory ligaments bands of connective tissue that suspend the breast onto the chest wall by attachment to the overlying dermistertiary follicles (also, antral follicles) ovarian follicles with a primary or secondary oocyte, multiple layers of granulosa cells, and a fully formed antrumtestes (singular = testis) male gonadstheca cells estrogen-producing cells in a maturing ovarian follicleuterine tubes (also, fallopian tubes or oviducts) ducts that facilitate transport of an ovulated oocyte to the uterusuterus muscular hollow organ in which a fertilized egg develops into a fetusvagina tunnel-like organ that provides access to the uterus for the insertion of semen and from the uterus for the birth of a babyvulva external female genitaliaWolffian duct duct system present in the embryo that will eventually form the internal male reproductive structuresContributors and AttributionsCC licensed content, Shared previouslyGlossary: The Reproductive System.
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Oogenesis

What happens during oogenesis? Oogenesis (Greek oon = egg, genesis = origin, genesis) includes egg formation and maturation. The formation of eggs takes place in mammals essentially prdnatal, ie before birth. These Ureizellen (Oogonien) multiply by Mitose in the ovaries.
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