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3.5: Review Questions - Biology

3.5: Review Questions - Biology


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1. Explain the major differences between the gram positive and gram negative cell wall.

2. Salmonella typhi is a gram negative organism.

a. What color will it appear when simple stained with crystal violet?

b. What color would it be if it was gram stained correctly?

3. Explain how bacterial cells would look in the gram staining procedure if the following mistakes were made:

a. Decolorizer left on too long

b. Decolorizer not left on long enough

c. Slide not heat-fixed before staining

4. What is the difference between a simple stain and a differential stain?

5. Explain why it is important to use only a small amount of bacteria when preparing a smear.

6. What are the two things that are stained in a capsule stain? What is NOT stained in a capsule stain?

7. Why would a health care provider be interested in knowing the gram reaction of a pathogenic bacterium?


Molecular and Cell Biology

The undergraduate major in Molecular and Cell Biology (MCB) focuses on the study of molecular structures and processes of cellular life and their roles in the function, reproduction, and development of living organisms. This covers a broad range of specialized disciplines, such as biochemistry, microbiology, biophysics, molecular biology, genetics, cell physiology, cell anatomy, immunology, and neurobiology. The types of living organisms from which the departmental faculty draws its working materials are as diverse as its disciplinary concentrations, ranging from viruses and microbes through plants, roundworms, annelids, arthropods, and mollusks, to fish, amphibia, and mammals.

There are five emphases (concentrations) in MCB:

  • Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
  • Cell and Developmental Biology
  • Genetics, Genomics, and Development
  • Immunology and Pathogenesis
  • Neurobiology

All of the emphases except Neurobiology have two tracks to choose from. Some tracks only differ slightly and some give a whole different perspective on the emphasis. For help deciding your emphasis please see a staff or peer advisor in MCB!

Declaring the Major

Students can receive pre-major advising at any time from staff or peer advisors. MCB is not an impacted major. Therefore, the major will accept any interested student who meets the minimum course and GPA requirements and is realistically able to complete the major requirements during the student's time at UC Berkeley. Any student intending to major in MCB must finish declaring or complete MCB conditions to declare by the end of their 6th semester, or during the semester before their graduating term (if this semester is before their 6th semester).

In order to declare the MCB major, students must have completed or be enrolled in BIOLOGY 1A / BIOLOGY 1AL (C or better on first Bio 1A midterm) and CHEM 3B (past the early drop deadline), have at least a 2.0 overall GPA, a 2.0 GPA in the courses taken for the major, a 2.0 GPA in any upper division courses taken for the major, and know which emphasis they will declare. Intended MCB students are not required to have completed the math, physics, or Bio 1B requirements at the time of declaration (though these requirements must be met in order to graduate).

To start the major declaration process, students must fill out the MCB major declaration form online.

Once the declaration form has been processed, students will receive an email with instructions to schedule an appointment to meet with a staff advisor. Advising appointments take place in the Undergraduate Advising Office in 3060 Valley Life Sciences Building. Students should bring a printed copy of their Academic Summary in CalCentral to their advising appointment to discuss their academic plan. See full instructions on the MCB Declaration page.


Biology Notes Form 4

In human, sex linked characters found on the X chromosome include:

Red-green colour-blindness

Genes found on y-chromosome include:

These are agents that cause mutations.

Causes and consequences of chromosomal mutations

Klinefelter's Syndrome

Changes in the structure of a chromosome during meiosis.

These mutations are described as follows:

Genetically inherited disorders in humans

Practical Applications of Genetics

Plant and Animal breeding

Application of Genetic Engineering

Agricultural industries:

Practical Activities To demonstrate Continuous variations

Discontinuous variations - ability to roll tongue

Demonstration of Mitosis and Meisosis

Evidence for Organic Evolution

Limitations of the Fossil Evidence

Geographical Distribution

Comparative Embryology

Mechanism of Evolution

Evolution by natural selection

Darwin made the following conclusions

Comparison of Vertebrate Limbs

Comparision of Wings of bird-and insect

Education tour to Archeological site/local Museum

Irritability in Plants

Tactic Movements in Plants and other Organisms

Production of auxins and their effects on plant growth

Effects of Auxin on Plant Growth

Growth of adventitious roots

Reception, Responses and Co¬ordination in Animals

Components of the nervous system in humans

It consists of the following:

Structure and Functions of Neurons

There are three types of neurons:

Intermediate or connector neurone

The brain consist of the following parts:

The medulla oblongata (brain stem).

Optic lobes -control the sense of sight.

Olfactory lobes -control the sense of smell.

Simple And Conditioned Reflex Actions

Examples of reflex action include:

The Role of Endocrine System in Human Beings

Over secretion is termed hyperthyroidism this causes:

Under secretion is termed hypothyroidism:

Comparison between endocrine and nervous system

Effects of drugs abuse on the human health.

Below is a list of effects of hard drugs on human health

Structure and Function of Parts of the Human Eye

Control of light intensity entering the eye

Image formation and Interpretation

Common Eye Defects and their Correction

Long-sightedness (Hypermetropia)

Structure and Functions of Parts of Human Ear The Mammalian Ear

The mammalian ear performs two major functions:

The ear is divided into three sections.

This may be as a result of:

Young seedlings are placed in a dark box. It is kept moist but not exposed to light. After two weeks the seedlings are removed and observations made to note the following: Colour of leaves is yellow.

Size of leaves is small Length of internodes is long Length of stem elongated long and thin.

Other seedlings that were grown in light are observed (as control) and similar measurements taken.

They are green in colour with larger leaves, shorter internodes and the stem is shorter and thicker.

Those in the dark have smaller yellow leaves, long thing stems with long internodes. (etiolated).

The Knee Jerk Experiment

Support and Movement in Plants and Animals

Necessity for support and movement

Necessity for support and movement in plants

Tissue distribution in Monocotyledonous and Dicotyledonous plants

Role of support tissues in young and old plant

Plants are held upright by strengthening tissues

Plants with weak stems obtain their support in the following ways.

Support and Movement in Animals

Necessity for support and movement in animals.

Animals move from place to place:

Types and Functions of Skeletons

Functions of Exoskeleton

External features-of Tilapia

The mammalian skeleton is divided into two:

Appendicular Skeleton

Movable joints are of three main types:

Types, Locations and Function of Muscles

Smooth Muscle (Involuntary Muscles)

Skeletal Muscle (striated or voluntary muscle)

Role of muscles in movement of the human arm

Antagonistic muscles of human forelimb

To observe prepared slides of transverse section of stems of herbaceous and woody plants.

To observe wilting in young herbaceous plants.

To examine the exoskeleton in an arthropod.

To observe the external features of a finned fish.

To examine bones of the axial skeleton of a rabbit.

To observe bones of appendicular skeleton.

KCSE Revision Notes Form 1 - Form 4 All Subjects


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Frequently Asked Questions for Denied Applicants

The University of Florida thoroughly reviews each application for admission, and there are various reasons why prospective students may not be admitted to UF Online. This webpage provides an overview of UF Online’s admissions process, answers frequently asked questions, and recommends next steps for applicants who are interested in reapplying to UF Online.

How are UF Online applications for admission reviewed?

First, applications are reviewed against the state minimums for admissions. If the application meets those minimum requirements, the application is then reviewed against UF’s admissions standards, which vary based on the type of applicant, listed below.

Freshman Applicants If you have 0-11 transferable college credits, your application will undergo a holistic review. Your high school record, college transcripts (if applicable), extracurricular activities, unique contributions, and admissions essay are reviewed. If you graduated high school within the last 5 years, standardized test scores are also collected with your application.

Since your high school record constitutes the majority of your academic work to date, your academic performance in high school weighs heavily into your admissions decision.

The state minimum requirements for Freshmen applicants can be found here however, UF’s standards for admissions are significantly higher than the state minimums. Applicants who are admitted typically have at least (and usually higher than) a 3.7 High School GPA.

Recommended next steps: If denied at this level, we would recommend earning at least 30 transferable credits at a local state college or university. This coursework should include some competitive admissions courses for your intended UF Online major, as well as college level Math and English courses.

Lower Division (12-59 transferable credits): If you have 12-59 transferable college credits, your application will undergo a holistic review. As with freshmen applicants, your high school record, college transcripts, extracurricular activities, unique contributions, and admissions essay are reviewed. If you graduated high school within the last 5 years, standardized test scores are also collected with your application.

The state minimum requirements for Lower Division applicants can be found here, however, UF’s standards for admissions are significantly higher than the state minimums. Generally, we are looking for applicants with over a 3.0 High School GPA and over a 3.0 College GPA. The more college credits an applicant has earned, the less heavily the high school coursework weighs in the decision-making process. Additionally, the closer an applicant is to being an Upper Division transfer (60 credit hours), the higher the expectation that the applicant would have more of their intended major’s upper division competitive admission criteria met at the time of admission.

Recommended next steps: If denied at this level, we would recommend earning at least 60 transferable credits and meeting all of the competitive admissions criteria for your intended major before reapplying. To ensure that all UF general education requirements are completed and to take advantage of articulated transfer pathways, Florida residents are strongly encouraged to complete their Associates of Arts Degree at a Florida state college prior to reapplying. Admission processes and degree programs at each institution are found on the individual college’s webpage. For your convenience, the following Florida Department of Education website provides links to all the institutions included in the Florida College System: http://www.fldoe.org/schools/higher-ed/fl-college-system/colleges/.

Upper Division (60+ transferable credits): Unlike freshman or lower division applications, your high school record and test scores are not required to determine your eligibility for admissions. Your college coursework is used to determine your eligibility for admissions as an upper division applicant. Below are the state minimums and UF standards for Upper Division transfer admissions:

  • A cumulative 2.0 GPA in all college coursework
  • A 2.0 GPA or higher from the last institution attended
  • A minimum overall GPA requirement
  • A list of Competitive Admission coursework
  • A minimum prerequisite GPA

  • If you are missing prerequisites courses, you will need to complete the missing courses before reapplying.
  • If you have completed all of your prerequisite coursework, but did not meet both of the GPA requirements, you may need to take some additional courses or retake a course to earn a higher grade before reapplying. Please note that for most majors, all prior attempts at a competitive admissions coursework are factored into this GPA calculation.
  • If you have received an AA degree from a Florida College System institution, please consider applying to one or more of the other 11 institutions that comprise Florida’s State University System if you have not already done so. Admissions processes and degree programs at each institution are found on the individual university’s websites. For your convenience, the following State University System of Florida website provides links to the undergraduate admission websites for each institution: https://www.flbog.edu/universities/admissions-transfers/undergraduate-admissions/.

Post-baccalaureate (Already have a Bachelor’s Degree): This category falls under the same review process as Upper Division students. Please see above.

Readmissions (Previously attended the University of Florida): All readmissions applicants go through an extensive hands-on review process directly by the College to which the applicant is applying. Due to the unique circumstances of each student, the readmissions process can look very different from one student to the next.

Recommended next steps: If denied at this level, please refer to your decision letter available on your application status page. If your College provided specific admissions requirements, you should satisfy these requirements prior to reapplying.

How are courses in progress evaluated? Courses in progress are taken into account during the review process for admissions. It is very important to accurately report all courses in progress on your application, especially if you are taking prerequisites required for the major to which you are applying as an upper division applicant. With courses in progress, we do not assume that a specific grade will be earned, only that the current GPA will be maintained. How are grade point averages calculated?

The University of Florida conducts its own GPA calculations of your academic records. Each school transcript is reviewed individually for applicable transferrable work, which is why we require all transcripts be submitted with your application. How we calculate a GPA is detailed below:

High School GPA: Your coursework in English, Math, Natural Sciences, Social Sciences, and Foreign Language are utilized for your GPA calculation. All other non-academic coursework is excluded.

Note: Applicants utilizing a high school equivalency examination (GED, etc) are exempt from this GPA calculation and their applications are reviewed holistically.

Overall College GPA: Each transcript is reviewed individually and your grades are combined into one overall GPA. Coursework classified as vocational or from unaccredited institutions are excluded from this calculation. You must have at least a 2.0 overall college GPA and at least a 2.0 GPA at your last institution to be eligible for admission. Upper division applicants should know that each major has a specified minimum overall GPA, which can be located in the competitive admissions criteria section on each major’s webpage

Competitive Admissions College GPA (Upper division applicants only): Your competitive admissions GPA is calculated by averaging your grades across the prerequisites listed for your major. Most programs include every attempt at a competitive admissions course, regardless of possible grade forgiveness. Each major has a minimum overall GPA requirement and a minimum prerequisite GPA specified for admissions, which you can locate on your major’s webpage.

If your prior academic record was negatively impacted by serious extenuating circumstances that can be documented, consider the possibility of retroactively dropping and/or withdrawing from the issuing institution. If the issuing institution grants the retroactive drop/withdrawal, you could reapply for a future term using the updated transcript.

What is transferable coursework?

Credit is awarded for college-level coursework completed at a U.S. institution of higher education accredited by one of the following institutional accreditors or its equivalent from a foreign institution:

  • Western Association of Schools and Colleges, Accrediting Commission for Community and Junior Colleges (ACCJC)
  • New England Commission of Higher Education (NECHE)
  • Higher Learning Commission (HLC)
  • Middle States Commission on Higher Education (MSCHE)
  • Northwest Commission on Colleges and Universities (NWCCU)
  • Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges (SACSCOC)
  • WASC Senior College and University Commission

Foreign institutions must be recognized by the Ministry of Education in that country. Courses must be similar in nature and content to courses in our undergraduate curriculum to be transferred. Courses that are remedial, technical, vocational or doctrinal in nature are not transferable to an undergraduate degree. It is the prerogative of the student’s UF college to determine how transfer credits apply to a degree. Students should expect to receive 60 transfer credits with an AA degree from a Florida public community/state college.

Review the University of Florida’s full transfer credit policy here.

How does deficit record affect my admissions decision?

If you earned less than a 2.0 overall GPA or earned less than a 2.0 GPA at the most recent institution you attended, unfortunately, you are not currently admissible to UF. We recommend you return to your previous institution and improve your GPA prior to reapplying.

Does UF honor grade forgiveness? No, the University of Florida does not issue grade forgiveness. Every attempt at transferable coursework is included in your GPA calculations. The one exception for grade forgiveness is if you have earned an Associates of Arts (AA) degree from a Florida state college. In that case, grade forgiveness is honored for the overall GPA calculation and only up to the term for which the AA is earned. Where can I take additional coursework? If you were denied because you were missing specific courses, you will need to take those courses before re-applying to UF Online. Be sure to enroll at an accredited institution recognized by the University of Florida for any future coursework. To find online courses offered by Florida institutions, you can use the Course Search tool on the Florida Shines website. If you intend to reapply to UF Online, do not register for non-degree courses at the University of Florida. Non-degree coursework taken at the University of Florida will not be applied towards a UF degree. Non-Degree coursework at the UF includes flexible learning, transient coursework, and generally all coursework taken at UF before being admitted to a degree program. When should I reapply? Applicants should reapply once their academic record has changed and they have taken the recommended steps on this webpage to positively improve their academic record. All application deadlines for future terms must be met and can be found here. If you require more information, please contact the UF Online OneStop. What should I know about appealing my decision?

A formal appeals process exists for applicants whose individual circumstances may not have been sufficiently accommodated in the application process. Appeals can only be considered for the same major in the term for which you applied. If you wish to be considered for a different major, then a new application will be required. When you appeal, you are asking the Committee to make an exception in the case of your application. Every appeal will receive a fair review. However, exceptions, by definition, are rare and require substantial evidence or reasoning to warrant approval. Some appeals are approved most are not. Since the appeal process varies based on the major to which you applied, please contact the UF Online OneStop for more information.

Where can I learn about other degree programs?

Although we cannot offer you admissions to UF Online at this time, we encourage you to continue pursing your academic goals. If you are interested in reapplying to UF in the future, we encourage you to take the recommended steps listed on this page. However, if you want to learn about other degree programs and explore options outside of UF Online, read below.


Do I Need to Study for the ACCUPLACER?

You definitely should study for this test, especially if your college has a cutoff score. Moreover, even if you feel confident that you could do well, studying allows you to refresh your memory and call all of that relevant knowledge to the front so that you will easily remember what you need to do to answer each question correctly.

Since this exam is so comprehensive, it’s likely that there will be some material that you definitely need to review. You have your own particular set of strengths and weaknesses so you may be able to ace the arithmetic section without any additional effort but the advanced algebra section could leave you stumped.

With that in mind, the best way to prepare for this test is to review every section of the exam, including your strengths. Then, give yourself additional time to prepare for the portions that you need more work on.

A great study aid to use is the Mometrix study guide. The guide contains a complete overview for each section of the exam including a review of English grammar, punctuation, and conventions as well as clear and easy to understand explanations of all the different types of math problems you will encounter in the math sections. It even provides practice reading passages and tips for improving your reading comprehension skills.

Another great study aid you can use for the ACCUPLACER test are the Mometrix flashcards. These flashcards are an extremely effective way to absorb the material you need to learn. It’s a very convenient way to quiz yourself or have a friend quiz you. Plus, you can easily take them with you so that you can pull them out for a quick study session whenever you have a few spare minutes.

Both the study guide and the flashcards include practice questions so that you can familiarize yourself with the different kinds of questions you will see on the test. These are definitely two of the best tools to help you perform your very best on test day.


The United States Medical Licencing Examination materials for Step I are already available at the USMLE website.

The materials can be downloaded in pdf format in:

The content outlines for this exam has been updated by a subcommittee of the step I committee.

The updated content can be found in this link:

USMLE committee recommends to students considering to exam Step I after May 2011 to be familiarized with the previous (2010) and the updated content outlines.

In future posts we will discuss the topics associated to the sample questions related to Biochemistry that are included in these materials.


3.5: Review Questions - Biology

Through ongoing partnership with teachers across New York City, New Visions has developed this course map for a high school biology course fully designed to the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) and the New York State Science Learning Standards (NYSSLS). Each unit follows a common structure: students engage with an anchor phenomenon and develop questions go through sequences of learning and sense-making to develop and iterate on answers to those questions then complete a three-dimensional performance task.

Unit 1 -- Marathon Runner -- has been reviewed by the Achieve Peer Review Panel using the EQuIP rubric, and is available on the Quality Examples of Lessons and Units page. The remaining units are in development now. Links to the blueprints for each unit are provided below. The units will continue to be published here as they are revised and finalized.

Please join our mailing list to learn about updates to this course and upcoming materials for High School Earth & Space Science.

Funding from the Carnegie Corporation of New York supports this project and other work to design instructional materials and professional learning systems to the Next Generation Science Standards and New York State Science Learning Standards.

Materials created by New Visions are shareable under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0) license materials created by our partners and others are governed by other license agreements. For more details, please see this page.


HESI A2 Practice Test

Welcome to HESI A2 Practice Test. Our website features free HESI practice tests. These are full-length tests which include answers, computerized scoring, and detailed explanations. The HESI Admission Assessment Exam is used as an entrance exam for nursing schools and health-related university programs. It is often referred to as the HESI A2 exam. The best way to prepare for this test is with challenging HESI practice questions. Choose a topic from the list below to get started now!

Free HESI Practice Tests

Math Test

Reading Test

Vocabulary Test

Grammar Test

Biology Test

Chemistry Test

Anatomy Test

The HESI Exam

The HESI Exam is an entrance test for nursing schools. It includes 7 academic tests along with a personality profile. The total length of the exam is 5 hours and 15 minutes. The creator and publisher of the exam is HESI Evolve. The primary areas tested are English Language, Math, and Science.

The English Language section includes Reading Comprehension, Vocabulary, and Grammar. For the Reading Comprehension test you will read short passages and then answer a series of multiple choice questions about what you have read. The Vocabulary test will measure your knowledge of basic medical terminology. The Grammar test will evaluate your ability to use proper grammar.

The Math section just has one mathematics test, which covers addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, percentages, decimals, and fractions. Basic algebra skills are also covered.

The Science section covers Biology, Chemistry, Anatomy & Physiology, and Physics. Physics is new addition to this exam, and some colleges do not include it in their admissions test.

Working through practice questions is a great way to prepare for this test. Start with our free HESI practice tests. Taking these online tests will give you a good idea of which topics you need to focus on during the rest of your test prep. All of our HESI practice questions include detailed explanations as well, so be sure to review the correct answers for any questions you miss. Good luck with your exam!


Test Day

Bring

  • Photo ID – license, passport or greencard
  • #2 Pencils – at least 2
  • ATI Login Info

Don't Bring

  • Additional clothes – This includes jackets, hats, and sunglasses
  • Personal items – This includes purses and backpacks
  • Electronics – No phones, calculators, and digital or smart watches
  • Food/Drink – Not permitted unless medically necessary

What to Expect

  • Calculators - These are provided
  • Proctors – Will monitor the testing
  • Breaks – 10-minute break is provided during math
  • Issues – Raise your hand if you need to leave your seat, or for technical issues

For more information on the TEAS exam or to register, check out the official website.


Watch the video: - IB QUESTIONS Paper 1 - Part 2 - Genetic modification and Biotechnology - Genetics IB Biology (June 2022).


Comments:

  1. Kazilmaran

    This variant does not suit me.

  2. Ronan

    In my opinion it already was discussed, use search.

  3. Wheatley

    In my opinion, this is the wrong path.

  4. Qaseem

    Wonderful!



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